A Design Framework for Electronic Cognitive Apprenticeship
This paper proposes a design framework for constructing a groupware-based learning environment (GBLE) that enables electronic cognitive apprenticeship. The central theme of this framework is that any design of a GBLE must have learning theories as foundations to substantiate the learning effectiveness of this environment. The proposed framework applies the principles of cognitive apprenticeship and case-based learning in designing a learning environment using groupware technology. In this framework, the practice of case-based learning is grounded in cognitive apprenticeship. The theory base of cognitive apprenticeship provides not only more coherent guidance but also opportunities to fine-tune the pedagogy of case-based learning. Groupware tools provide needed functions to enable instructional methods of cognitive apprenticeship. This technological support also facilitates the learning process of learners and thus enhances the effectiveness of case-based learning. Based on this framework, a system titled "Using Notes for a Case-based Learning Environment" (UNCLE) was created to demonstrate the framework's utility.